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Basic knowledge and steps of raising cattle (cattle raising technique)

Views: 7     Author: Site Editor     Publish Time: 2022-09-05      Origin: Site

1. Feeding

Fattening cattle grow fast and have higher requirements for nutrition, so feed should be scientifically matched and supplied reasonably.

First, let's talk about the mix of feeds. The nutrition of the feed must be sufficient and comprehensive, including energy, protein, minerals, vitamins and crude fiber. In the early stage of fattening, bone growth must pay attention to supplement calcium, phosphorus and other minerals. In the middle of fattening, to grow muscles, we must pay attention to the amount of protein feed. In the late fattening period, be sure to pay attention to the amount of energy feed. In addition, it is necessary to adjust the mix of feed according to different seasons. If the weather is cold in winter, we can reduce the amount of bran and increase the amount of fat. In hot summer, the feeding amount of wheat bran and green juice feed can be increased, and the feeding amount of energy and protein can be reduced.

Next, let's talk about feed supply. The dry matter of the fattening cattle diet is about 2.8% of body weight. The ratio of concentrate to coarse feed in the early stage of fattening is 4:6, and the ratio of concentrate to coarse feed in the middle and later stages of fattening is 5:5. You can use this data to calculate the amount of feed for different stages of a fattening cow. If the feed intake of the finishing cattle is far from the theoretical feed, the quality of the feed should be considered. Poor quality, mildew, corruption, freezing, etc. will affect the palatability of the feed.

Finally, let's talk about the feeding schedule. Feeding cattle can be fed twice a day, morning and evening. In summer, before 6:00 am and after 7:00 pm, green and juicy feed can be fed at noon, and can be fed in winter. After 7:00 in the morning and before 5:00 in the afternoon, you can add green hay feed once in the evening. The morning feeding amount accounts for about 40% of the total diet, and the evening feeding amount accounts for about 60% of the total diet. In addition, it should be noted that the leftover material in the trough should be cleaned up before each feeding, so as not to affect the appetite of the fattening cattle, and the leftover material will cause mildew if it lasts for a long time.

chicken feed pellet(1)

2. Management

Routine management is also critical to the growth of feeder cattle. Only by creating a suitable fattening environment can the growth rate of cattle be improved.

The first is sanitation. The manure in the cowshed should be cleaned up in time and transported to a place far away from the cowshed for accumulation and fermentation. Long-term stacking of manure in the cowshed is not allowed.

The second is regular disinfection, once every 3-5 days in summer and once every 7-10 days in winter. The cowshed should be cleaned before each disinfection, every corner should not be missed during disinfection, and the disinfection drugs should be replaced regularly.

For the third ventilation, the cowshed should often open windows for ventilation to reduce the humidity and toxic and harmful gas content in the cowshed and improve the air quality.

Cooling in the fourth summer, high temperature and high humidity in summer will not only affect the normal feeding and growth of cattle, but also affect the health of cattle. Cooling measures should be taken, such as building awnings, installing exhaust fans or cooling water curtains, and spraying for cooling.

Fifth, keep warm in winter. The severe cold in winter will increase the energy consumption required by fattening cattle to keep out the cold. Doing good insulation work can reduce the energy consumption of fattening cattle and improve the feed utilization rate and growth rate, such as building a greenhouse and installing a heating furnace. While maintaining good heat preservation, ventilation should not be neglected, and a balance point should be reached between the two.
The sixth is to prevent mosquitoes and flies. More mosquitoes and flies in summer will not only spread diseases, but also affect the feeding and rest of fattening cattle. It can be used to control mosquitoes by spraying drugs, installing window screens, and hanging mosquito killer lamps. fly.


3. Epidemic prevention
Fattening cows have a huge impact on growth when they are sick. First, the fattening cows stop gaining weight or even lose fat during the illness, and even if they are well, they will be affected by drugs, physical fitness and other factors for a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to do various epidemic prevention work to reduce or prevent fattening cattle from getting sick.
After the introduction of the calves, it is best to inject the hyperimmune serum of the relevant diseases first, and inject the hyperimmune serum of the disease with the high incidence of the disease in the introduction place and local area. And if there is no problem, inject the corresponding vaccine to strengthen the immunization. In the follow-up feeding process, the fattening cows are regularly injected with vaccine according to the immunization period of the vaccine until they are put out. Generally, the diseases that fattening cattle need to be immunized against are bovine foot-and-mouth disease, bovine infectious pleuropneumonia and nubuck. Bovine foot-and-mouth disease, etc., among which the polyvalent vaccine is best used for bovine foot-and-mouth disease.
During the feeding process of fattening cattle, deworming should also be carried out several times. The first deworming can be carried out 15 to 20 days after the introduction of cattle. You can choose subcutaneous injection of ivermectin and albendazole (or levamisole) for oral combined deworming. For worms, you can also choose ivermectin and albendazole (or levamisole) mixed powder or tablet orally for deworming. Ivermectin subcutaneous injection has a good absorption effect but is more troublesome, and oral absorption is unstable but saves trouble, everyone It can be selected according to the situation. Oral deworming is best when feeding fattening cattle in the morning on an empty stomach.
In addition, during the feeding process of fattening cattle, some health-care drugs should be fed, such as stomachic drugs, probiotic preparations, electrolytic multivitamins, astragalus polysaccharides, etc., to enhance the digestive ability and disease resistance of fattening cattle.

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